|Indefinite Article||Definite Article|
|M+F followed by a vowel||L’|
* In the negative aspect, definite articles hold their forms:We will be focusing on the use of definite articles and its contracted forms. The latter are also known as ‘mutant’ forms in the local lingo.
– pas le
– pas la
– pas les
– pas l’
The biggest hint to know a definite article is that it is ‘the’ in the English language. However. There are rules to writing them. Let’s start the guide on how to use these articles.
1. Definite Articles Used in General
At times in English, we say certain generic themes which don’t employ articles. This is different in French.
It could be that the word ‘some’ is missing like ‘I drank juice,’ when it should be ‘I drank some juice.’ However, in this case partitive articles are used which we will discuss later. If the sentence was ‘I don’t like drinking juice’, then definite articles in French would have been used. The trick to identifying when the statement is generic is by adding ‘in general’. If that makes sense, then use the definite article.
La Justice est un élement important de notre société (Justice is an important part of our society)
*Here justice is used in general
2. Definite Articles Used to Show Specificity
As mentioned, the word ‘the’ in English can be an indication for use in French too. This is in cases of specific things too.
Il utilise la voiture (He is using the car)
J’aime les chaussures rouges (I like the red shoes)
3. Definite Articles Used After Some Verbs
There are a few verbs which come before nouns, introducing their presence in a generic sense. Definite articles are then used before such verbs like detester (to hate), adorer (to adore), aimer (to like) etc.
J’admire la tour Eiffel et les Champs Élysées (I admire the Eiffel Tower and the Champs Elysees)
4. Definite Articles Used to Show Possession
When we talk about something that belongs to someone else then in English an apostrophe with an ‘s’ is used – This is my grandmother’s jewellery. In French there isn’t any such kind of concept. We use definite articles like the way in the example.
Ce sont les bijoux de ma grand-mère (These are my grandmother’s jewellery)
* If we literally translate to English the sentence would be – This is the jewellery of my grandmother.
The Mutant Forms
|Definite Article + à||Definite Article + de|
|Known As||Contractive Articles||Partitive Articles|
|When Is It Used?||When in English the translation of preposition is ‘to’ or ‘at’.||When in English the translation of preposition is ‘of’ or ‘from’.|
|Masculine Singular||À + le = au
|De + le = du
|Feminine Singular||À + la = à la (no contraction)
|De + la = de la (no contraction)
|Plural||À + les = aux
|De + les = des
|Masculine + Feminine Before A Vowel||À + l’ = à l’ (No contraction)
|De + l’ = de l’ (No contraction)
Keep making sentences and solving exercise such that eventually the definite articles and its mutant forms becomes a reflexive reaction to a sentence. See you next lesson!